The collective agreement covers you against arbitrary dismissals and dismissals, because the contracts define the rules to be respected in the event of termination, i.e. the so-called termination procedures. Voluntary or permissive matters can be negotiated, but are not necessary and cover issues such as internal union affairs and the feeding of the employer`s board of directors. In the United States, the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 made it illegal for any employer to deny union rights to a worker. The issue of the union organization of government employees in a public sector union was much more controversial until the 1950s. In 1962, President John F. Kennedy passed an executive order granting federal employees the right to unionize. In Sweden, around 90% of employees are covered by collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden has no legislation on minimum wages or laws to extend collective agreements to disorganized employers. Unorganized employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many are not.
The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to companies and workers covered by collective agreements.  In a workplace where the majority of workers voted in favour of union representation, a committee of workers and union representatives negotiates with management a contract on wages, working time, social benefits and other conditions of employment, such as. B protection against termination of employment without simple reason. Individual negotiations are prohibited. Once the works council and management have agreed on a contract, it will be put to the vote of all workers in the workplace. If the contract is approved, it is usually in effect for a fixed term of years and, once that term is completed, it is renegotiated between staff and management. There are sometimes quarrels over the union contract; This is particularly the case for workers made redundant at a trade union workplace for no simple reason. These are then the subject of an arbitration procedure that is similar to an informal trial; A neutral arbitrator then decides whether there is denunciation or other breach and, if so, orders its correction. In 24 U.S. states, employees working in a unionized company may be required to contribute to representation expenses (for example. B in disciplinary hearings) if their colleagues have negotiated a union security clause in their contract with management. Contributions are usually 1 to 2% of salary.
However, union members and other employees covered by collective agreements receive on average a wage increase of 5 to 10% compared to their non-unionized (or non-covered) colleagues.  Some states, particularly in the southern central and southeastern regions of the United States, have banned union security clauses; This can be controversial, as it allows some net beneficiaries of the union contract not to pay their share of the costs of contract negotiations. Regardless of the state, the Supreme Court has ruled that the law prevents a person`s union dues from being used without consent to fund political ends that could be contrary to the individual`s personal policy. Instead, in states where union security clauses are allowed, these dissidents may choose to pay only the share of dues directly intended for workers` representation.  In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in Texas &N.O.R. Co. v. The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks upheld the law`s prohibition on employers interfering in the choice of negotiators.  In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order granting public employee unions the right to negotiate with federal authorities.  In Sweden, the scope of collective agreements is very high, although there are no legal mechanisms to extend agreements to entire sectors. .